Chinese Guidelines That Apply To Banks' Overseas Operations

The Chinese banks that have granted the most credits to Latin America and the Caribbean are the China Development Bank and the Bank of Exports and Imports of China (Eximbank). The rest of the loans come mainly from the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) and the Bank of China, also known as the People's Bank of China. In addition, Chinese banks in coordination with national banks (mainly BNDES in Brazil) and multilateral banks (such as the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank) have established several joint funds to finance different types of projects in Latin America.

Between 2005 and 2018, the largest recipients of Chinese loans were Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, and Bolivia. This is due to the fact that these loans are a good deal for China (despite the economic problems both in China and these countries) because they are tied to the contracting Chinese firms and the import of Chinese goods and services; and because for these borrowers, Chinese finance constitutes one of the few alternatives available in financial markets.